IOT

IoT Based Automatic Street Lighting System

A well-designed street lighting system allows users to move at night with good vision, safety, and comfort, while also decreasing many risk factors that occur at night and improving the neighborhood’s attractiveness. At the same time, insufficient lighting results in poor visibility, making it impossible for any person traveling by that roadway to see. This proposed IoT-based street light monitoring system efficiently monitors and utilizes streetlight energy consumption.

A number of sensors, including an infrared sensor and a light-dependent resistor (LDR), an Arduino UNO microcontroller system, relays, and a software Graphical User Interface (GUI), are used in this IoT-based project. LDR sensors track the movement of people and cars on the street. If the sensor detects movement in the street, the microcontroller sends a signal to the street light, which turns it on. Similarly, if there is no movement in the street, the lights are turned off by the microcontroller. As a result, a significant amount of energy is spent.

DRAWBACKS OF EXISTING SYSTEM

  •  Manual switching off/on of street lights
  • More energy consumption
  • High expense
  • More manpower

OBJECTIVES

  • To avoid  unnecessary Waste of light
  • Provide efficient, automatic, and smart lighting systems.
  • Totally  based on Renewable energy sources
  • Longer life expectancy. Energy Saving.

Proposed system

In general, public authorities in developing nations are concerned about street lighting because of its importance to economic and social stability. Currently, the light is turned on in the evening and turned off in the morning using a manual technique. As a result, there is a lot of energy wasted in the ON/OFF cycle. One of the main reasons for switching to an autonomous system is that there is less power waste, resulting in significant cost savings. This suggested street light monitoring system maintains street lighting maintenance while also assisting in the expansion of street lighting to new regions. As a result, there will be more opportunities to provide street lighting for all roadways in rural and underserved communities.  At the same time,  better performance in lighting quality improves safety conditions for both vehicle traffic and pedestrians.

WHAT IS A SMART STREET LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM?

Smart street lighting control systems schedule lights on or off easily on the road and set dimming levels of lights, so that it provides the right level of lighting intelligently. These Smart and intelligent street lighting control systems are designed specifically for energy consumption. Nowadays, most Cities use smart street lighting control systems to reduce their street lighting energy. 

Moreover, this smart street lighting control system efficiently detects the real-time light failure and other maintenance problems, so that any damage or malfunction can be fixed quickly. This system also provides the operator with web access for automatic or manual monitoring and control over illumination performance.

The main aim of this street lighting Monitoring system is to assist drivers, pedestrians, and cyclists in finding their way in the dark. Many neighborhood groups believe that extra illumination helps prevent crime, and business district lighting also may help create a mood or a pleasant environment.  

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

The application is designed in such a way that we place light sensors in all the street lights circuits and which are responsible to switch on and off automatically. Once the lights are switched on, current sensors placed at every light pole are responsible to report problem status to the centralized system with the help of the GSM module attached to the circuit. With the status available in the centralized system, the workman now can easily locate the particular light to be taken care which minimizes the time to search and repair.

At the end of each day, the system collects relevant data from each street light..  The information is stored in the database such as power consumption, the total number of burning hours, the total number of interruptions, a tally of the actual power consumption with the power supplied, details of fault detection i.e., the actual location of the street light. 

In this Internet of Things (IoT)-based Automated Street Lighting System, during late night traffic gradually reduces, and the intensity gradually decreases till morning to save energy. As a result, the street lights automatically turn on at dusk and turn out in the morning. Because of their low energy usage and long life, LED lights are used in the system. Because pulse width modulation allows for intensity control, LED lights are rapidly replacing traditional lights. An Arduino board is used in this proposed system. At different periods of the night, an Arduino board is used to offer varying intensities. This concept is extended by incorporating the LDR to precisely track the switching process and IOT to display the street state on a web browser.

The system operates in 3 modes:

  • OFF mode: When there is enough light throughout the day, the entire system is turned off and the batteries are charged.
  • Active mode: When the amount of natural light falls below a particular threshold, the system comes on and the motion sensors are activated.
  • ON mode: The sensors activate in the presence of pedestrians, which then activates the LED lights. After a certain amount of time, these lights will turn off.

Arduino Uno:

 Arduino Uno is an open-source based on the Microchip ATmega328P developed by Arduino. cc. The current version of Arduino Uno comes with a USB interface, 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analog pins, an ICSP header, 16 MHz ceramic resonators, a power jack,  and a reset button. And an Atmega328 microcontroller is used to connect with external electronics circuits.

LDR Sensor

Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) also referred to as photoresistors are simple and low-cost Sensors. It’ is also called a photoresistor or a photoconductor. It basically works on the principle of Photoconductivity. A photoresistor may be a passive component that decreases resistance with reference to receiving luminosity (light) on the component’s sensitive surface.

WIFI Module (ESP8266)

   ESP8266 Wifi Module AP & Station Remote Serial Wireless IoT Board designed based on an integrated chip specifically to fulfill the needs of a new connected world. It can handle all  the necessary overhead for communicating with your network, such as TCP/IP stack and  communicating with your 802.11 networks

GSM Module:

  GSM Module is used to establish communication between a computer and a GSM system. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an architecture used for mobile communication.

IR LED Sensor:

An IR sensor is an electronic sensor that measures and detects the infra-red light radiating from an object or its environment. These lights are not visible by naked eyes but can be seen through a camera. Hen light falls on the IR sensor, and the photodiode responds in terms of change in resistance. This change in resistance is measured in terms of voltage. This module can be connected directly to a microcontroller, Arduino, or Raspberry Pi.

CONCLUSION:

The major goal of this proposed IoT-based system is to provide an Automatic Street Light Monitoring System with lower power usage and cost. This research presents a paradigm for adjusting street light illumination using sensors while using the least amount of electricity possible. We may also use this method to assess the vehicle’s speed, recognize the number plate, and recognize road incidents, among other things.

This Smart Street Light idea is useful not just in rural areas, but also in urban settings. As technology advances, we will require more electricity, therefore renewable energy will be beneficial and advantageous. We can even include smart vehicle parking in this project, which is useful for driverless automobiles.

In short, this IoT-based Smart Street Light Monitoring System is intended to be the most cost-effective, practical, environmentally beneficial, and secure approach to conserving energy. Furthermore, light status information may be obtained at any time and from any location with this system. It effectively addresses the two problems that the world is facing today: energy conservation and incandescent light disposal.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.