IoT or the internet of things is characterized as a forthcoming innovation that empowers us to control equipment gadgets through the Internet. Due to rapid population growth, a lack of public awareness has led to one of the most significant issues associated with smart city applications i.e. solid waste management. The lack of care and attention by the authorities had made the garbage bins mostly seem to be overflowing. This had made a negative impact on our society’s health and the environment. Basically, the waste management process starts with waste created by city people and disposed of in garbage bins at the source. Afterward, the Municipal department trucks collect garbage and move it to recycling centers on a fixed schedule. Still, the Municipalities and waste management companies fail to keep up with this functioning.
This IoT-based Intelligent Waste Bin for smart cities is designed to overcome the limitations of traditional waste management systems. This project mainly concentrates on offering an easy, reliable solution to the common problem of inefficient disposal faced at present. This Internet-of-Thing (IoT) based system allows real-time monitoring of the garbage depth inside the dustbin, thereby giving alerts on the level of garbage. The real-time and triggers the garbage collection process via IoT.
What is Intelligent Waste Bin
These are Smart bins designed as an intelligent waste management system. This system comprises wireless ultrasonic fill-level sensors embedded inside which detect how full the bin is and then, through the IoT, this data is sent to a cloud-based monitoring and analytics platform. On the basis of this data, waste collection services can optimize their routes and frequency.
Smart Bins help to create a cleaner, safer, more hygienic environment and enhance operational efficiency while reducing management costs, resources, and roadside emissions. The Smart Bin is ideal for busy locations such as campuses, theme parks, airports, railway stations, and shopping malls.
This Proposed system allows the waste management to monitor based on the level of the garbage depth inside the dustbin. The system gives alerts to users about the level of garbage; (domestic waste, paper, glass, and plastic). The system consists of an ultrasonic sensor that measures the garbage level as well as a PIR sensor, GAS sensor(co2), and a PIC18 microcontroller that controls system operation whereas everything will be connected to the server. At the same time, the level of garbage be displayed will displayed on LCD to allow users to know the level of garbage in the dustbin without opening it. At the same, PIR and GAS sensors detect the presence of a person as well as the amount of gas-particle per meter data all the data is transferred and displayed on the server. The LCD is interfaced with a PIC microcontroller to display the percentage of the garbage for bins and the gas amount the domestic waste does not to wait for the bin to be 100% full as the longer it will be in the bin; the longer the domestic waste will be rotten and create an unpleasant environment.
PIR sensor checks the presence of human beings and motion so when a person is coming toward the dustbin it will detect the presence of a person and it will automatically open. The range is selected 2 to 3 m. The load cell is a sensor used to check the weight of the dustbin sometimes the level is not full but the heavy garbage is placed in it due to which the dustbin may get damaged to avoid this we used the load cell. In some cases, the value of the level sensor and load cell is not changed but still, garbage is drop at that time the buzzer will beep. Sometimes some poisonous gases are developed in the dustbin which are hazardous for human health.
Arduino Uno is an open-source based on the Microchip ATmega328P developed by Arduino. cc. The current version of Arduino Uno comes with a USB interface, 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analog pins, ICSP header, 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a power jack, and reset button. And an Atmega328 microcontroller used to connect with external electronics circuits.
This ultrasonic sensor module is used for measuring distance, object sensors, motion sensors, etc. Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04 uses sonar to measure the distance of the object. It emits an ultrasonic wave at 40 kHz which will go and bounce back after hitting an object. An ultrasonic sensor detects and measures the distance of a target object using ultrasonic sound waves and converts the reflected sound into an electrical signal.
A Passive Infrared sensor defined as an electrical sensor that detects the infrared light radiated by a warm object or used to sense motion. It is widely used to detect the motion of a human body within the sensor’s range. Hence often referred to as “PIR”, “Pyroelectric”, “Passive Infrared” and “IR Motion” sensor.These pyroelectric sensors introduce changes in their temperature due to incident infrared radiation into an electric signal. But there will be no change in the detection distance. In order to lengthen the detection distance of the detector, an optical system added to collect the infrared radiation.
A load cell is a sensor or a transducer that converts a load or force acting on it into an electronic signal. This electronic signal can be a voltage change, current change or frequency change depending on the type of load cell and circuitry used. There are many different kinds of load cells. We offer resistive load cells and capacitive load cells.
A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak or other emissions and can interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals.
This Proposed system on Intelligent Smart Bin System using Ultrasonic sensor, PIR Sensor, GAS, Buzzer, and PIC18 modules is a cost-effective and efficient system designed to garbage level of dust bin utilizing Internet of Things (IoT) technology. This system continuously monitors the level of dustbins when the garbage level reaches its maximum. This reduces the total number of trips of garbage collection vehicles and hence reduces the overall expenditure associated with the garbage collection. If the dustbin is not cleaned at a specific time, then the record is sent to the higher authority who can take appropriate action. This system also helps to monitor the fake reports and hence can reduce the corruption in the overall management system.