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How Does a Lithium-ion Battery Work? A Quick Overview

Lithium-ion batteries power the lives of millions of people each day. Due to its lightweight, high energy density, and ability to recharge, this technology is becoming more common in everything from computers and cell phones to hybrids and electric cars. Material handling and airport ground support equipment are also benefiting from these rechargeable batteries.

The technology behind lithium-ion batteries makes them a great choice because of their distinct advantages and environmentally-friendly benefits. But how do lithium-ion batteries function? What exactly is it about? In this blog, we will discuss Lithium-Ion Batteries, their working, advantages, disadvantages, application,s etc.

Introduction to Lithium-Ion Battery:

A lithium-ion battery, often known as a Li-ion battery, is a rechargeable battery made up of cells in which lithium ions travel from the negative electrode to the positive electrode through an electrolyte during discharge and then back again during charging. The outside shell of a lithium battery is made of metal. Because the battery is pressured, the use of metal is especially critical. There’s a pressure-sensitive vent hole in this metal enclosure. This vent will release the extra pressure if the battery ever gets too hot and risks bursting due to over-pressure.  The vent is exclusively for safety purposes. 

Each Lithium battery cell has essentially three components.

  • A Positive electrode
  • A Negative electrode
  • A separator-Electrolyte

Lithium cobalt oxide, or LiCoO2, is used as the positive electrode. Carbon is used for the negative electrode. When the battery is charged, lithium ions flow from the positive electrode to the negative electrode through the electrolyte and attach to the carbon. During discharge, the lithium ions return from the carbon to the LiCoO2.

From the anode to the cathode, the electrolyte transports positively charged lithium ions.The movement of lithium ions causes free electrons to develop in the anode, causing a charge to form at the positive current collector. The electrical current then passes from the current collector to the negative current collector, passing through a powered device (cell phone, computer, etc.). The separator prevents electrons from flowing freely inside the battery.

So how does the cell provide power to the equipment?

how does a lithium-ion battery work

When you plug a lithium-ion battery into a device or piece of equipment, the positively-charged ions move from the anode to the cathode. As a result, the cathode becomes more positively charged than the anode. This, in turn, attracts negatively-charged electrons to the cathode.Electrolytes that form a catalyst are contained in a separator in the cell. Ion transport between them is enhanced by this. The electrons migrate through the device the battery is plugged into due to the movement of ions through the electrolyte solution.  The overall design of a lithium-ion battery provides many benefits for equipment users:

  • When compared to other battery types, the run time of these batteries increases substantially.
  • Fast-charging capabilities allow shift employees to work more efficiently with minimal downtime.
  • They have flatter discharge curves and a higher constant power output. This means that as the battery charge level drops, there will be no more bothersome sluggishness in the equipment.

The anode delivers lithium ions to the cathode as the battery is discharging and providing an electric current, resulting in a flow of electrons from one side to the other. When you plug in the device, the cathode releases lithium ions, while the anode receives them. The Lithium-ion battery works in this manner.

ENERGY DENSITY VS. POWER DENSITY

Energy density and power density are the two most prominent concepts related with batteries. Energy density is measured in watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) and is the amount of energy the battery can store with respect to its mass. Power density is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg) and is the amount of power that can be generated by the battery with respect to its mass.. 

Tips For Extending Lithium Ion  Battery Life:

Advantages & Disadvantages of Lithium Ion Battery

Advantages:

  • High power density
  • Easy maintenance
  • Continuous voltage
  • Variety of models available
  • Higher Battery Life
  • Generally, they are much lighter than other types of rechargeable batteries of the same size. 
  • They hold their charge. A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its charge per month.
  • High specific energy and high load capabilities with Power Cells
  • High capacity, low internal resistance, good coulombic efficiency
  • Simple charge algorithm and reasonably short charge times
  • Low self-discharge (less than half that of NiCd and NiMH)

Disadvantages of Lithium-ion Battery

  • Requires higher protection circuit to prevent thermal runaway if stressed
  • Performance declines with time
  • When stored at high voltage and at high temperatures, it degrades.
  • At freezing temperatures (zero degrees Celsius, 32 degrees Fahrenheit), quick charging is not possible.
  • Transportation regulations are required when shipping in larger quantities
  • High temperatures are particularly harmful to them. Lithium-ion battery packs degrade significantly more quickly when exposed to heat than they would otherwise.

Applications of Lithium-ion Battery

Lithium batteries have a long list of real-world applications beyond running the apps on your phone. From life-saving medical equipment to luxury yachts, lithium batteries keep both the essentials and the comforts of modern life running with safety and reliability.

  • UPS or Emergency Power Backup 
  • Dependable Electric And Power RV
  • Alarm Systems In Remote Locations
  • Storage of Solar Power
  • Personal Freedom With Mobility Equipment
  • Used in Portable Power Packs 
  • Reliable And Lightweight Marine Performance
  •  Surveillance Or Alarm Systems In Remote Locations
  • Portable Power Packs That Eliminate Downtime

Conclusion:

Hope, this blog helps you to understand the working of lithium-ion battery and its applications. We will be back with more informative blogs soon.

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