Raspberry Pi versus Arduino: an age-old rivalry between two of the most powerful single-board computers and microcontrollers. But which board do you actually require? It’s not as simple as deciding which is the best, cheapest, or most powerful. We evaluated the two based on eight crucial parameters to help you decide: performance, power needs, GPIO capabilities, add-ons, pricing, programming language support, overall usefulness, and educational value.
But, before we get into each round of comparison, let’s have a look at the Raspberry Pi and Arduino, as well as the most popular models from each platform. Both Arduino and Raspberry Pi are good teaching tools for students, beginners and hobbyists. Let us see some of the differences between Raspberry Pi and Arduino.
What is Arduino?
Arduino is an open-source electronic device that reads inputs (such as light on a sensor, finger on a button, or a Twitter tweet) and creates output based on these inputs (such as turning on an LED or activating a motor). Arduino was created at Ivrea Interaction Design Institute as a simple tool for students with no prior experience with electronics or programming. After gaining popularity, it began to evolve in order to meet new requirements and obstacles. Because of its simple and easy-to-use user interface, it has enabled a wide range of applications, from ordinary products to complicated scientific apparatus.
Arduino boards are microcontrollers rather than entire computers with their own operating system, such as the Raspberry Pi. They just run C/C++ programmes contained in their firmware. The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free and open-source software that allows you to create code and upload it to an Audrino board.
Arduino has the advantage of being open-source, which means that numerous design files and source code are already available. You may choose any of them or improve on them to create your own Arduino board.
- Most of the Arduino boards come with an 8-bit Microcontroller.
- 32k bytes of flash memory and 2k bytes of SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).
- Input voltage required- 7 V – 12V
- Arduino uses C/C++ as a programming language.
- Digital I/O pins- 14
- Analog Input pins- 6
- Clock frequency-
- Processor speed ranges from 8 MHz to 400 MHz. The average speed of most of the Arduinos is 16 MHz.
- Flash Memory- 32KB
- It is limited to IDE (Integrated Development Environment)
BENEFITS OF ARDUINO:
- Arduino’s hardware and software are both open-source. You have the option of choosing from the pre-existing scripts or customising your own Arduino board.
- It costs less than the Raspberry Pi.
- It is suitable for beginners because it is simple to learn and apply.
- Audrino may be easily programmed using an IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
- Arduino has a large user base and a diverse set of applications.
DRAWBACKS OF ARDUINO:
- When compared to the Raspberry Pi, it has far less processing capability.
- The internet and wireless communication are not supported by Arduino boards.
- Arduino’s 8-bit CPU design makes it incapable of accomplishing sophisticated tasks.
What is Raspberry Pi?
A small, fully working computer that may be connected to a computer display, keyboard, and mouse. It has all of the characteristics of a PC, including a dedicated processor, memory, and a graphics driver. It also comes with its own operating system, Raspberry Pi OS, which is an improved version of Linux.
The Raspberry Pi does not come with storage, but you may use microSD cards to store whichever operating system (Raspberry Pi, Ubuntu Mate, etc.) you like. Because the Raspberry Pi has Bluetooth, ethernet, and WiFi connection, it may also be used to send data over the internet. The Raspberry Pi project and its software are not open-source.
Because a Raspberry Pi board contains a whole computer within a Printed Circuit Board, it is commonly referred to as a Single Board Computer, or SBC. The Raspberry Pi Foundation is constantly upgrading and improving it. Since its introduction, it has proven to be a popular choice for use in robotics, weather monitoring, IoT, and a variety of other electronic systems.
- Superior software implementation
- 64-bit Quad-core processor
- Large RAM (latest Raspberry Pi 4 Model B Board has up to 8G of RAM)
- Processor speed- 700MHz- 1.5GHz
- Raspberry Pi has 40 input/output pins.
- It can be connected to the Internet.
- It can run all kinds of applications (including MS Office and Email).
- It contains everything- CPU (Central Processing Unit), GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), Ethernet port, GPIO (General-purpose Input/Output) pins, and power source connector.
Benefits of Raspberry Pi:
- It can do complicated activities such as weather monitoring, controlling robotics, and so on since it supports an operating system.
- Because it contains everything—from a CPU (Central Processing Unit) to an ethernet connection and WiFi support—you may use it as a portable computer.
- It has several GPIO (General-Purpose Input/Output) pins (the famous model of Raspberry Pi has 40 GPIO pins). As a result, it can accommodate a high number of sensors.
- It has more processing power. The Raspberry Pi 4 B model has a 1.6 GHz CPU.
- It is capable of running a wide range of applications (including MS Office and Email).
Drawbacks of Raspberry Pi:
- Raspberry Pi”s hardware and software are closed-source. It means that you cannot customize your own Raspberry Pi single-board computer (SBC).
- The Raspberry Pi lacks internal storage and must rely on a micro SD card to function as internal storage.
- During extensive activities, it occasionally overheats.
Differences between Raspberry Pi and Arduino
- Microcontrollers (not complete computers) are used on Arduino boards, whereas microprocessors are used on Raspberry Pi boards.
- The CPU, RAM, and ROM are all housed in the Arduino board’s Microcontroller. All of the extra hardware on the Arduino Board is for power, programming, and IO connectivity. The Raspberry Pi SBC includes all of the features of a computer, including a processor, memory, storage, a graphics driver, and ports.
- The Raspberry Pi has its own operating system, whereas Arduino boards do not. The Arduino board operates using basic instructions given by the IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
- Raspberry Pi OS is a fully working operating system that comes with the device (previously known as Raspbian OS). Although the Raspberry Pi may run a variety of operating systems, the Raspberry Pi Foundation prefers Linux. If you like, you can install Android. Arduino is devoid of an operating system. All you need is firmware to tell the Microcontroller what to do.
- The Arduino clock speed is 16 MHz, but the Raspberry Pi clock speed is roughly 1.2 GHz.
- Raspberry Pi is ideal for building Python-based software applications, whilst Arduino is ideal for connecting Sensors and controlling LEDs and Motors.
- This does not preclude us from connecting sensors and LEDs to the Raspberry Pi. To promote programming by manipulating hardware, the Raspberry Pi has a 40-pin GPIO connector via which you may connect various electrical components like as LEDs, Buttons, Sensors, Motors, and so on. On Arduino, the GPIO is referred to as Digital IO (for digital Input and Output) and Analog IN (for analogue Input and Output) (for Analog Input).
- You may add a particular feature or capability to Arduino by using Arduino Shields, which connect into the Arduino Pin headers. Examples include a Motor Driver, Ethernet Connection, SD Card Reader, Wi-Fi, Touchscreens, cameras, and so on. While the Raspberry Pi is a self-contained board, you may add other devices to it such as a touchscreen, GPS, RGB panels, and so on. The Raspberry Pi Hardware Attached on Top (HAT) Expansion Boards are inspired by Arduino Shields, which allow you to extend the capabilities of the Raspberry Pi. They’re linked to the GPIO Pins.
- Raspberry Pi and Arduino have quite different power needs. Despite the fact that they are both powered by USB (micro-USB or USB Type C for the Raspberry Pi and USB Type B for the Arduino), the Raspberry Pi requires more electricity than the Arduino. So, although Raspberry Pi requires a power adapter, Arduino may be powered from a computer’s USB port.
- Power outages on Raspberry Pi can harm the hardware, software, and apps. In the case of Arduino, if the power is interrupted, it restarts. As a result, before removing power, the Raspberry Pi must be fully turned down.
- The Raspberry Pi can connect to the internet, but Arduino boards cannot.
- Arduino boards are less costly, whereas Raspberry Pi boards are slightly more expensive.
Raspberry Pi Or Arduino – Which is better?
In a battle between Raspberry Pi and Arduino, it is Raspberry Pi that has the upper hand. It is a superior choice because of its faster processing speed, internet connectivity, compatibility for a wide range of various sensors, and capacity to handle complex tasks.
However, this does not rule out the possibility of Arduino remaining in the running. It has its own set of benefits. It is less expensive, open-source, and suitable for novices.