IOT

Automatic Driver Drowsiness Alert and Health Monitoring System using GSM

We are living in a technology-based society where we have lots of innovative ideas day by day. These new innovations in IoT communications-based projects come as an ever-growing network that strives constantly to share and gather insight on the latest trends in the industrial IoT Platform.

 Driver drowsiness is Nowadays, One of the main causes of accidents is the Drivers’ Drowsiness. About 50% of road accidents occurs due to the carelesness of drivers mainly due to sleeping. So it is necessary to develop a system. Some to prevent the driver from drowsiness during driving. This has become a major challenge to develop a system for the prevention of this issue. In earlier days, the visual analysis of eye state and head pose (HP) for continuous monitoring of alertness of a vehicle driver was used. Still it has some drawbacks.

 The aim of this paper is to develop a prototype of a driver drowsiness detection system. This system mainly focuses on monitoring the driver’s body temperature and eye blink rate. It also monitors the heartbeat rate of the driver. These factors are measured using the appropriate sensors. The microcontroller compares the sensor values with the reference values provided. It alerts the driver if these values are out of the reference value range. Additionally, the GSM module sends the message to the concerned people to notify them about the driver.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Drowsiness is the main cause of major accidents which leads to injuries, deaths, and damages. To overcome this problem, we propose a system that utilizes various sensors. These sensors are used to detect the driver’s drowsiness and monitor the health of the driver. The buzzer alerts the driver whenever the driver feels drowsy. Whenever the sensor values are not in the range of threshold values, the motor stops. In case of emergency, the GPS module determines the location, and this information is sent through GSM to the particular person. All these sensor operations are controlled by a Microcontroller.

Here, the proposed system can be easily embedded in any vehicle. The Eye blink sensor is fixed to the driver with the help of goggles. The eye blink sensor senses the movement of the eyeball. The sensor output is connected to a microcontroller. DC motor is used as an engine in this prototype. The motor is directly controlled by the microcontroller. If the sensor detects no output from the sensor because there is no movement in the eyeball, it sends the signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller gives a warning signal and displays the reason in an LCD. If repeatedly there is no movement in the eyeball, then immediately the microcontroller stops the engine. The system also uses a heartbeat sensor and temperature sensor. Outputs of this sensor are analog, so we use ADC to convert signals to digital form so that they are processed by the microcontroller. Initially, the mentioned values for all sensors and phone numbers are stored in microcontroller memory. If any one of these three parameters is not in the specified range of mentioned values the microcontroller automatically sends location information to the stored number with help of GSM.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

  • 8051 MICROCONTROLLER IC:

The 8051 is designed as an effectively low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller. It comes with 4K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. Moreover, this IC features 4K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a Watchdog timer, and two data pointers. And also equipped with five vectors two-level interrupt architecture, a full-duplex serial port interface, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry.

  • HEART BEAT SENSOR:

A Heart Beat Sensor is one of the common sensors used to detect the heartbeat per minute. It provides a digital output of the heartbeat. This Heartbeat sensor comes with a bright infrared (IR) LED and a phototransistor to detect the pulse of the finger. The phototransistor in the sensor detects the presence of light, which means, how much light is passing through a finger.  When blood passes through the finger, the number of light changes and that change can be detected as a pulse.

  • TEMPERATURE SENSOR-LM35

LM35 is defined as a high precession Integrated circuit Temperature sensor, whose output voltage varies, with respect to the temperature around it. This compact-sized, cheap IC used to measure temperature anywhere between -55°C to 150°C.  LM35 generally gives temperature output that is highly precise than thermistor output without any external calibration circuitry. This Linear Monolithic IC LM35 is an integrated analog temperature sensor whose electrical output is proportional to Degree Centigrade.

  • GSM MODULE:

This  Generic SIM900 GPRS/GSM is Designed specifically for Arduino and its clones. SIM900 modem designed from SIMCOM. This miniature GSM/GPRS modem can be integrated into a great number of IoT projects. It operates on frequencies 850MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 1900 MHz. . Using the AT command the baud rate is configurable from 1200-115200. And it is suitable for SMS, Voice as well as Data transfer applications in the M2M interface with low power consumption. This SIM900 is compatible with ARDUINO, RASPBERRY PI, ARM, AVR, PIC, 8051, etc. And can also be directly connected to a computer via Serial Port.

  • MQ-3 GAS SENSOR:

A GAS sensor or a GAS Detector is defined as a chemical sensor that detects/measures the concentration of gas in its vicinity. MQ3 sensor also known as Alcohol gas sensor ideal for the detection or measuring of  Alcohol, Benzine, CH4, Hexane, LPG, CO. It offers very good sensitivity and a fast response time makes it ideal such as used in gas leakage alarm systems. The MQ3 sensor operates at a voltage of 5V DC and draws around 900mW. It provides a lower conductivity to clean the air as a gas sensing material.

EYEBLINK SENSOR:

An Eye Blink sensor is designed as an excellent device for drivers ensuring road safety. This Eye blink sensor continuously monitors eye movements, which will be helpful in warning drivers when they fall asleep. The IR sensor will sense the eye blinking continuously. In this sensor, the normal eye blink has no effect on the output of the system. In case, if the driver fell asleep, then the IR sensor receives an abnormal blinking rate. As a result, an alarm will ring to wake him/her.

  • BUZZER:

  A Buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device. Whenever the air pollution goes above the threshold level the Buzzer starts beeping indicating Danger.

  • DC MOTOR

A DC motor relies on the fact that magnet poles repel and unlike magnetic poles attracts each other. A coil of wire with a current running through it generates an electromagnetic field aligned with the center of the coil. By switching the current on or off in a coil its magnetic field can be switched on or off or by switching the direction of the current in the coil the direction of the generated magnetic field can be switched 180

  • GPS MODULE:

GPS KIT is a highly flexible plug-and-play with Rs232 Output. RS-232 through DB 9 pin connector. Use AC – DC Power Adaptor with following ratings: DC Voltage: 12V /1A. The GPS user segment consists of your GPS receiver. The receiver collects and processes signals from the GPS satellites that are in view and then use that information to determine and display the location. GPS receiver does not transmit any information back to the satellites.

  • LCD DISPLAY:

Displaying information is one of the crucial steps in electronic projects. So using LCDs has always been one of the most popular ways to display information. This 1602 LCD module is a very popular display. 16*2 LCD module consists of 16 columns and 2 rows, so it has 32 (16*2) characters in total.

  • RELAY:

A relay is designed as an electrically operated switch. Many relays operate with an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch. Relays functions where it’s necessary to regulate a circuit by a low-power signal. This is performed with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits, or several circuits that should be controlled by one signal. This 5V Relay is an automatic control circuit and to control a high-current using a low-current signal. The input voltage of the relay signal ranges from 0 to 5V. This 5V RELAY is controlled directly by Microcontroller Arduino.

CONCLUSION:

This proposed system is an IoT-based Automatic Driver Drowsiness Alert system by using GSM. This system is a cost-effective, practical, eco-friendly, and safest way to protect Drivers while driving. Moreover, in this system, the underground information can be accessed anytime and anywhere. It clearly tackles the challenges that the world is facing today.

This system mainly focuses on monitoring the driver’s body temperature and eye blink rate. It also monitors the heartbeat rate of the driver. These factors are measured using the appropriate sensors. And the microcontroller circuit controls the entire operation. In short, this is the cheapest and most effective way for drivers during night driving..

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