IOT

IoT Based Solar Power Electronic Voting Machine

IoT or the internet of things is characterized as a forthcoming innovation that empowers us to control equipment gadgets through the Internet. Homes of the next generation will become more and more self-controlled and mechanized because of the solace it gives, particularly when utilized in a private home.  

As a democratic country, India is built on the foundations of the election. In our country, Voting is a very important thing to take care of and to make valuable decisions. Because a person has the right to vote which is a constitutional right that we are privileged to have.

The government spends billions of dollars on the elections and ensures smooth functioning. Voting is the process in which a person is going to be elected as a leader or a responsible person for certain work for a certain period. So the voting should be held without any manipulations or errors. So this proposed system helps us to design an advanced Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) which helps in free and a fair way of conducting elections. This  system utilizes biometrics in order to avoid rigging and to enhance the accuracy and speed of the process. Finger print technology is developed to avoid any manipulations during voting in which each persons thumb impression is entered as data. Moreover, the solar-powered EVM design is quite efficient and allows the user a relief from the laborious act of vote collection and counting. Furthermore, it also removes the errors from the system, since it is a digital device. 

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

An Electronic Voting Machine is a device designed explicitly to count the ballot and record votes by reducing manual labor. One of the major concerns of EVM is the security system which includes insider threats, network vulnerability, and challenges to auditing. In Order to avoid these up to limit the system has been developed with a fingerprint sensor module so as to avoid any malpractices. 

As a pre-poll procedure, a database consisting of the thumb impressions of all the eligible voters in a constituency is created. During elections, the thumb impression of a voter is entered as input to the system. This is then compared with the available records in the database. If the pattern matches with anyone in the available record, access to cast a vote is granted. But in case the pattern doesn’t match with the records of the database or in case of repetition, access to cast a vote is denied or the vote gets rejected. All the voting machines are connected in a network, through which data transfer takes place to the main host through the Internet of Things (IoT).

In the proposed system, when we switch on the power supply, the solar energy stored in the DC batteries acts as a power supply. The ESP8266 module is connected to the wi-fi network and verifies whether the microcontroller is in an inactive state. After this, the RFID reader is initiated in which the. admin will use his RFID reader to authenticate the system. After that, the user will be allowed to verify their RFID reader using the thumb impression. The fingerprint sensor detects persons’ fingerprints and verifies with the existing database. If the results match then the user can enter his vote using the switch, otherwise, the system will notify the authorities. Finally, the microcontroller processes the given information and runs the code, it will either allow the user to vote or intimate authorities about the issue.  If the data matches with the existing data then the user is allowed to vote for their desired candidates. And results will be displayed in an LCD display.

HARDWARE REQUIRED:

  • PIC16F877A Microcontroller IC

PIC16F877A Microcontroller IC manufactured in 28-pin packages, designed as a powerful (200 nanosecond instruction execution) microcontroller. The PIC16F877A features 128 bytes of EEPROM data memory, self-programming, an ICD, 2 Comparators, 5 channels of 10-bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter. And also the synchronous serial port can be configured as either 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) or the 2-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) bus and a Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART). All of these features make it a perfect device for more advanced level A/D applications. It offers wide range of application in the field of automotive, industrial, appliances, and consumer applications. 

RFID READER:

These are highly reliable and pre-programmed card readers used in identification and access control applications. It provides easy interfacing for users. It is the reader used for communicating with the receiver. It acts as a sender which collects the information from the chip and verifies and allows the user to enter the details.

  • FINGERPRINT SCANNER MODULE:

A fingerprint scanner is used for verifying the biometrics of a person. The scanner is used for scanning the person’s information. The Fingerprint scanner is defined as a small embedded module comprised of an optical sensor mounted on a small circuit board. The optical sensor scans the images of your fingerprint to recognize its pattern. Initially, we need to register each fingerprint that you want to store by sending the corresponding command and pressing your finger against the reader.

  • DC BATTERIES:

Batteries are used for storing energy and utilize the energy whenever needed. It has two portions they are positive and negative. It has charging as well as discharging capacity.

  • SOLAR PANEL:

Solar Panels devices are used to absorb the sun’s rays and convert them into electricity or heat. A solar panel actually a collection of photovoltaic cells, used to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. A number of photovoltaic cells connected together make up a solar panel. A solar panel is used for generating the current. The solar panel runs with the help of the voltaic effect. It has a silicon layer used for the generation of current.

  • LCD DISPLAY|:

Displaying information is one of the crucial steps in electronic projects. So using LCDs has always been one of the most popular ways to display information. This 1602 LCD module is a very popular display. 16*2 LCD module consists of 16 columns and 2 rows, so it has 32 (16*2) characters in total.

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  • ESP8266 WiFi MODULE:

  ESP8266 Wifi Module AP & Station Remote Serial Wireless IoT Board designed based on an integrated chip specifically to fulfill the needs of a new connected world. It can handle all the necessary overhead for communicating with your network, such as TCP/IP stack and communicating with your 802.11 networks. 

CONCLUSION:

Nowadays the Government spends billions of dollars on elections and ensuring smooth functioning. Voting Is the process in which a person is going to be elected as a leader or a responsible person for certain work for a certain period. So the voting should be held without any manipulations or errors. So this proposed system helps us to design an advanced Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) which helps in free and a fair way of conducting elections. This system utilizes biometrics in order to avoid rigging and to enhance the accuracy and speed of the process. Fingerprint technology is developed to avoid any manipulations during voting in which each person’s thumb impression is entered as data. Moreover, the solar-powered EVM design is quite efficient, cost-effective and allows the user relief from the laborious act of vote collection and counting. 

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