IoT Based Automatic Seat Vacancy Detection in Travel Buses

We are living in a technology-based society where we have lots of innovative ideas day by day. These new innovations in IoT communications-based projects come as an ever-growing network that strives constantly to share and gather insight on the latest trends in the industrial IoT Platform. IoT helps to lift up smart cities, transportation, industries with new innovations for development.

Every human loves to travel around the world. From the beginning of planning a trip, booking tickets is the major problem we used to face. The travel industry has become one of the top five sectors which are brought to a higher level by changes via digitization. The proposed system is done in the transport sector to effectively manage the vacant seats, particularly on travel buses.

The vacant seats might occur due to last-minute cancellations, the travelers who missed the transport, or the passengers who don’t cancel their ticket even after they decide not to travel. In the present era, the seat assignment for the travelers is mostly done online but when it comes to the empty seats, the ticket checker needs to allocate it manually. The system’s purpose is to check whether or not all reserved seats are involved utilizing sensors, and it naturally conveys the message to a concentrated server and empowers that specific seat for crisp booking. Along these lines, the travelers who got ready for movement by the last moment can book tickets online from the impending loading up stations.


This proposed system is designed to allocate the manual checking of vacant seats in travel buses. Whenever there comes a seat without passengers or even after booking and ticket cancellation, there occurs a vacant seat. IoT technologies sensor helps to collect the information about the empty seats using one of the sensors along with the with Node MCU and GPS modules. These components initiate the centralized server with signals to open ticket booking for an upcoming boarding bus terminus. The main purpose is to solve the problem of seat allocation for the vacant seats in a travel bus using IoT devices.

The main objective of this system is to control, monitor, analyze, communicate and detect a surrounding and make the output as a digital signal from the analog signal. All the information collected is saved to local storage of the devices and further, it can be transferred to other storage like databases.

This system comprises of. Arduino Uno microcontroller and IR sensors that are mounted with the Wi-Fi technologies for data transmission. The IR sensors are integrated with the node microcontroller for the sensing work. The input data for the IR sensor are detected by receiving the infrared radiation that transmits the IR light towards an object. Neo 6m Gps device is used to collect the geographical location of a place in latitude and longitude values.

Here, when a person books a seat it requests for the passenger boarding point and stores the geographical location in a cloud server with the default vacancy status of the seat as reserved. Every seat has individual IR sensors which are connected with the Uno development Board. For every 5 minutes, Arduino sends the data (latitude, longitude, seat no, vehicle id, and status) to the cloud. On the travel date, the IR sensor verifies whether any passenger is occupying their booked seat or not. At the point when the booked traveler possesses his seat then the seat opening status will continue as before. Additionally, the framework won’t change the opportunity status when the vehicle’s flow area is at a 10 km distance span from the traveler’s boarding point. If the distance range surpasses 10 km of the specific traveler’s boarding point, it will check for the status and the framework refreshes the opening status of the specific seat. Any other way it won’t roll out any improvements.


  • Arduino Uno Board: 

Arduino Uno is an open-source based on the Microchip ATmega328P developed by Arduino. cc. The current version of Arduino Uno comes with a USB interface, 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analog pins, an ICSP header, 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a power jack,  and reset button. And an Atmega328 microcontroller is used to connect with external electronics circuits.

  • ESP8266 WiFi Communication Module:    

  ESP8266 Wifi Module AP & Station Remote Serial Wireless IoT Board designed based on an integrated chip specifically to fulfill the needs of a new connected world. It can handle all  the necessary overhead for communicating with your network, such as TCP/IP stack and  communicating with your 802.11 networks


This is a complete GPS module that is based on the Ublox NEO-6M. The NEO-6 module series is designed as a stand-alone GPS receiver featuring the high-performance u-blox 6 positioning engine. This Ublox GPS module offers high flexibility and cost-effective receivers offering numerous connectivity options in a small compact-sized package. NEO-6 modules are ideal for battery-operated mobile devices due to their compact architecture, power consumption, and memory options.


A Passive Infrared sensor is defined as an electrical sensor that detects the infrared light radiated by a warm object or used to sense motion. It is widely used to detect the motion of a human body within the sensor’s range. Hence often referred to as “PIR”, “Pyroelectric”, “Passive Infrared” and “IR Motion” sensor. These pyroelectric sensors introduce changes in their temperature due to incident infrared radiation into an electric signal. But there will be no change in the detection distance. In order to lengthen the detection distance of the detector, an optical system was added to collect the infrared radiation.

  • LCD Display

A Liquid  Crystal  Display commonly abbreviated as LCD is basically a display unit built using Liquid Crystal technology. When we build real-life/real-world electronics-based projects, we need a medium/device to display output values and messages.  


This. IoT-based Smart Seat Vacancy Detection project aims to allocate the vacant seats on the Bus over the Internet. All the components that are connected over the IoT network can be controlled and secured through your smartphone. The system includes a Combined GPS+GSM Module which can track the location of the vehicle via the GPS antenna implanted in the vehicle. This IoT-based project is a highly efficient and cost-effective method used in the transportation system. IoT technologies sensor helps to gather the information about the vacant seats using one of the sensors, Arduino Uno integrated with ESP8266 WiFi Module and also GPS Module.

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