IoT Mining Tracking and Worker Safety Helmet

IoT or the internet of things is characterized as a forthcoming innovation that empowers us to control equipment gadgets through the Internet.  Mining is said to be one of the most dangerous jobs all over the world. The underground environment of the earth is quite risky and unpleasant. Deeper the mines, it will be quite dangerous to work. Lack of oxygen under the ground or there will be many challenges related to mining if any crisis has occurred.

  In many countries,  underground miners basically lack safety,  social guarantees and in case of injury may be left to cope without assistance. As a result, a numerous number miners lost their lives due to a lack of security. The mining industry has the highest incidence of occupational deaths among all industries.  Common causes of occupational deaths include rock falls,  fires,  explosions, methane intoxication,  and electrocution.  

Safety and security is the most important thing to be considered in the mining industry. In order to overcome these challenges, here we design an IoT-based mining tracking as well as a safety system for the mining industry using a microcontroller-based circuit on the worker helmet. Here we design RF-based circuits to detect workers moving through the entire mining site. The helmet is integrated with an rf based tracking system which in coordination with the tracker rf systems helps provide data over IoT. 


Modern mines regularly execute a few wellbeing methodologies, schooling and preparing for laborers, wellbeing and security principles, which lead to considerable changes and enhancements and wellbeing level both in opencast and underground mining. This system is based on RF communication-based circuit Arduino Uno as its controller.

The Atmega microcontroller-based RF tracker circuitry helps to receive the data transmitted by worker helmet nodes. This helps to locate the current location of workers through the entire mining site. Moreover, each worker helmet circuit is integrated with a panic/emergency button.  This button when pressed shows an emergency sign over the IOT web interface about the worker emergency. This can be used for any emergencies like – toxic gas inhalation, cave ins, physical injury etc. Thus the system ensures mining worker safety using IOT.


Arduino Uno Board:  

Arduino Uno is an open-source based on the Microchip ATmega328P developed by Arduino. cc. The current version of Arduino Uno comes with a USB interface, 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analog pins, an ICSP header, 16 MHz ceramic resonators, a power jack,  and a reset button. And an Atmega328 microcontroller is used to connect with external electronics circuits.


A GAS sensor or a GAS Detector is defined as a chemical sensor that detects/measures the concentration of gas in its vicinity. The gas sensor is also known as Chemiresistor ideal for detection or measuring of  LPG, Alcohol, Propane, Hydrogen, CO, methane, and even other dangerous gas. It offers very good sensitivity and a fast response time makes it ideal such as used in air quality monitors and gas leakage alarm systems. It offers excellent sensitivity and fast response to different types of gas based on the sensors used. When the target contains the content of gases, the sensor’s conductivity goes higher alongside the gas concentration rising.


This Accelerometer measures dynamic acceleration such as motion, shock, or vibration and static acceleration tilt or gravity. It contains a polysilicon surface-micromachined sensor and signals conditioning circuitry to implement an open-loop structure made of the silicon wafer suspended freely, which allows it to deflect in any direction when subject to acceleration. Thus, the deflection cause change in capacitance between plates and structure. This change in deflection on each axis is measured as the output voltage proportional to acceleration on that axis.  Single- and multi-axis models are available to detect the magnitude and direction of the acceleration as a vector quantity and can be used to sense orientation, acceleration, vibration shock, and falling.


A temperature sensor is designed as an electronic device that measures the temperature of its environment and converts the input data into electronic data to record monitor or signal temperature changes. These are a type of resistors whose resistance varies with temperature known as Thermistors.


Displaying information is one of the crucial steps in electronic projects. So using LCDs has always been one of the most popular ways to display information. This 1602 LCD module is a very popular display. 16*2 LCD module consists of 16 columns and 2 rows, so it has 32 (16*2) characters in total.


An IoT module is designed as a small electronic device embedded in objects, machines, and things connected to wireless networks and sends and receives data.


This proposed system is IoT-based mining tracking as well as a safety system for the mining industry using a microcontroller-based circuit on the worker helmet. This system is a cost-effective, practical, eco-friendly, and safest way to protect the workers working in the mining field. Moreover, in this system, the underground information can be accessed anytime and anywhere. It clearly tackles the challenges that the world is facing today in the coalfield. In this way, it will be helpful to all miners present inside the mine to save their life before any casualty occurs. Real-time monitoring and a rapid alert system produce an efficient platform for improving work quality and safety.

The use of IoT technology enhances the process of monitoring various aspects of the underground mining system using the gas sensor to sense different types of dangerous gas and Arduino is the heart of this project that controls the entire process. The Wi-Fi module connects the whole process to the internet and LCD is used for the visual Output.

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