Nowadays the electronic devices are becoming compact, flexible, and cheap that are capable of doing more function as compared to their predecessors. A Microcontroller was introduced as a new innovation in the electronics industry. Designed with the purpose of making our tasks easier, with minimum effort, and gives maximum output.
Arduino Uno is an open-source based on the Microchip ATmega328P developed by Arduino. cc. The current version of Arduino Uno comes with a USB interface, 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analogue pins, an ICSP header, 16 MHz ceramic resonators, a power jack, and a reset button. And an Atmega328 microcontroller is used to connect with external electronics circuits. Out of 14 I/O ports, 6 pins were used for PWM output. Each pin operates at a voltage of 5V providing a maximum of 50mA. It also supports serial communication using Tx and Rx pins. Although there are many versions of Arduino like Arduino Uno, Arduino Due, Arduino Leonardo, Arduino Mega, however, most common versions are Arduino Uno and Arduino Mega. For projects related to digital electronics, embedded systems, robotics, or IoT, then using Arduino Uno would be the perfect option.
Moreover, this microcontroller is programmable with the Arduino IDE common to all our boards and running both online and offline. The USB connection with the PC is necessary to program the board and not just to power it up. Arduino Uno is powered either by a USB cable or by an external 9-volt battery, although it operates at voltages between 7 and 20 volts. The ATmega328 on the board comes preprogrammed with a bootloader. Therefore, allows uploading new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. Meanwhile, Uno communicates using the original STK500 protocol. Uno uses a programmed Atmega16U2 as a USB to serial converter. This avoids the use of FTDI USB to serial driver chips.