The A4988 is a comprehensive microstepping motor driver with an easy-to-use built-in translator. These are meant to drive bipolar stepper motors in full, half, quarter, eighth, and sixteenth steps in full, half, quarter, eighth, and sixteenth step modes, with an output drive capacity of up to 35 V and 2 A. The existence of a fixed off-time current regulator allows it to function in Slow or Mixed decay modes. Only two IO ports are required for each stepper motor. In other words, three stepper motors may be effectively handled using six IO ports. It can handle four axes (X, Y, Z, and A-Z). With modified firmware and pins D12 and D13, you can duplicate X,Y,Z or perform a whole 4th axis.Moreover, it provides internal synchronous rectification control circuitry, thereby improve the pulse width modulation (PWM) power consumption during operation.
Jumpers are supplied on this board to adjust the Micro-Stepping for the stepper drivers. Some drivers, such as the DRV8825, can accomplish up to 1/32 micro-stepping in some instances. It is a GRBL 0.9 compliant board, which is an open source firmware that converts G-code commands into stepper signals and operates on an Arduino UNO. For CNC milling/engraving/3D printers, the GRBL controller offers a no-compromise, high-performance, low-cost alternative to parallel-port-based motion control. It may be used with any Arduino (Duemillanove/Uno) that has an Atmega 328. The GRBL controller is built in highly optimised C and takes advantage of all of the AVR’s sophisticated features to provide accurate timing and asynchronous operation. This board serves as a driver expansion board for engraving machines, 3D printers, and CNC machines. This latest expansion board designed from updated Arduino CNC Shield Version 3. This board consists of total of three slots, and thus can drive 3 A4988 stepper motor.